Tuberculosis that infects any organ in the body other than the lungs is called extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
It is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which usually attacks the lungs. It spreads through the air from one person to another through coughing, speaking, and singing. It is NOT spread by:
An individual contracts bacteria, and the body is unable to fight it. The bacteria continues to grow and multiply. Symptoms include:
This individual may spread TB bacteria to others, may have abnormal chest x-rays, positive sputum smear or culture, and usually has a skin test or blood test indicating infection.
An individual contracts bacteria but does not get sick because the body is able to fight the bacteria and stop it from growing. This individual has no symptoms and does not feel sick, cannot spread TB bacteria to others, but usually has a positive TB skin test reaction or blood test. TB Disease may develop if treatment is not received.
TB is treatable and curable. Active, drug-sensitive TB is treated with a standard six-month course of four antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to the patient by a healthcare worker or trained volunteer. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine for TB. It is often given to infants and small children in countries where TB is common. It does not always protect people from getting TB.
Travellers should avoid close contact or prolonged time with known TB patients in crowded, enclosed environments, such as clinics, hospitals, prisons, or homeless shelters.
Air travel itself carries a relatively low risk of infection with TB of any kind. Travellers who will be working in clinics, hospitals, or other health care settings where TB patients are likely to be encountered should consult infection control or occupational health experts. Ask about administrative and environmental procedures for preventing exposure to TB. Once those procedures are implemented, additional measures could include using personal respiratory protective devices.
Travellers who anticipate possible prolonged exposure to people with TB should have a TB skin test or a TB blood test. If the test reaction is negative, they should have a repeat test 8 to 10 weeks after returning to their countries.
Annual testing may be recommended for those who anticipate repeated or prolonged exposure to TB or an extended stay over a period of years in a location where TB is prevalent. Because people with HIV infection are more likely to have an impaired response to TB tests, travellers who are HIV positive should tell their physicians about their HIV infection status.
About AIG Travel
AIG Travel, Inc., a member of American International Group, Inc., is a worldwide leader in travel insurance and global assistance. Travel Guard® is the marketing name for its portfolio of travel insurance and travel-related services, including medical and security services, marketed to both leisure and business travelers around the globe. Services are provided through a network of wholly owned service centers located in Asia, Europe and the Americas. For additional information, please visit our websites at www.aig.com/travel and www.aig.com/travelguard.
This product is confidential and for use only by the intended recipient(s). It cannot be distributed by the aforementioned recipients, to any other parties, without the prior express consent of AIG Travel. AIG Travel will use reasonable endeavors to ensure the accuracy of information contained herein as of the date this product is time stamped but all such information, given its nature, shall be subject to change or alteration at any time and the use of such information is at the sole discretion of the intended recipient(s). AIG Travel assumes no liability or responsibility for the use, interpretation or application of any of the information contained herein. The information contained in this material is for general informational purposes and is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical problem. For reprints or digital reproduction rights, please contact: email@example.com.